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Nkhani

Mvula yamvula imapangidwa ndi zovala zopanda madzi. Nsalu yake yopanda madzi ili ndi tepi, nsalu yamafuta ndi kanema wapulasitiki, ndi zina zambiri.

Ma raincoats adachokera ku China. Mu Mzinda wa Zhou, malaya amvula anali opangidwa ndi vanila "petulo" ngati chovala chamvula chodzitetezera ku mvula. Chovala chamvula ichi ndi chomwe anthu nthawi zambiri amatcha "Raincoat". Zovala zamvula zamasiku ano zimayang'ana kukwera kwa mpweya kwa nsalu yopanda madzi, ndipo malaya amvula opumira amakhala othandiza kutulutsa mpweya wotentha ndi chinyezi kuchokera pa chovala cha mvula mukamavala, kukulitsa gawo labwino

Ma raincoats adachokera ku China. Mu Zhou Dynasty, chovala chamvula chopangidwa ndi vanila "petulo" chinagwiritsidwa ntchito kuteteza mvula, chisanu, mphepo ndi dzuwa. Chovala chamvula ichi chimadziwika kuti "Raincoat". Pakati pa nthawi yamasika ndi Yophukira, akale anali atapanga malaya amvula a nsalu yamafuta. Chaka cha 27 cha Ai Gong ku Zuozhuan: "Chen Chengzi adapanga Jangge ndi zovala". Zolemba za Du Yu: "zopangidwa, raincoat". Duan Yucai wa Mzera wa qing adaganiza: zida zamagalimoto sizinapangidwe ndi udzu, ngati zovala za lero zamafuta. Malinga ndi kafukufukuyu, panthawiyo, anthu anali kale ndi chidziwitso cha choumitsira chopangira mafuta, Ebara, ndi zina zambiri, chomwe chimatchedwa nsalu ya mafuta, ndi nsalu yokhala ndi mafuta a tung kapena mafuta a choi mafuta osavala madzi. Pambuyo pa Dynasties yaku Kumpoto ndi Kummwera, kupangidwa kwa zovala zamvula zamafuta kunkapitilira patsogolo. Amatha kuzikonza pa silika kapena kupangidwa ndi pepala la coconorm. Mu Mzera wa Sui, nsalu yamafuta idagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira ma raincoats. "Sui Book" nthawi ina inali ndi Emperor Yangdi akuwona mvula yosaka, "mozungulira zovala za mafuta." Komabe, malaya amvula a nsalu yamafuta anali okwera mtengo komanso ovuta kwa anthu wamba kupeza. Ndi olemekezeka okha omwe amatha kusangalala nawo. Mu Mzera wa Tang, ma raincoats adapanga kuphatikiza kwa malaya amvula ndi chipewa. Mawu oti "Yuge Zi" yolembedwa ndi Zhang Zhihe wa Tang Dynasty akuti, "Green Ruoli, green Coir raincoat, osabwerera chifukwa cha nyengo yozizira", yomwe imafotokozadi anthu ogwira ntchito omwe amagwirira ntchito malaya amvula. Chifukwa chake timati "green zhu zhu" ndi "Green coir raincoat", chifukwa zonsezi zimapangidwa kuchokera ku masamba a zomera. Mu Mzera Wachifumu, munali malaya akunja opangidwa ndi silika. Munthawi yayitali, malaya amvula ndi chipewa adakali malaya akunja odziwika bwino, koma ndikukula kwachitukuko, salinso ofolera, koma abulauni m'malo mwake, akukhala opambana pakupanga. M'ma Dynasties a Song ndi Yuan, raincoat yama coir inali chovala chamvula cha asirikali. Mu Ming ndi Qing Dynasties, olemekezeka adakondanso malaya amvula, monga Jia Baoyu mu Loto la Red Mansions. M'masiku amvula, anali kuvala "chipini cha jade" ndi udzu wa yade, ndi "chipewa chagolide champhesa" cholukidwa ndi khungu lopyapyala lamphesa ndikupaka mafuta a tung, zomwe zidakopa chidwi cha atsikana. Chovalachi chakhala chikugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chovala chotsimikizira mvula mpaka kutuluka kwa malaya apulasitiki amakono pang'onopang'ono kusiya anthu. Koma kumadera ena akutali a mapiri, mutha kuwonabe koti wa mvula wopangidwa ndi ulusi wazomera

Mellors kindu

Mellors kindu

Mu 1747, mmisiri wa ku France Francois Freno adagwiritsa ntchito latex yomwe adapeza kuchokera ku matabwa a labala kuti apange mimba nsapato ndi malaya mu njira yothetsera izi kuti zisawonongeke. Mu fakitare ya mphira ku Scotland, England, kunali wantchito wotchedwa McGuindos. Tsiku lina mu 1823, McGuindos anali akugwira ntchito mwangozi anaponyera njira yampira pazovala zake. Atazindikira, adazipukuta mwachangu ndi manja ake, koma zimawoneka kuti madzi ampirawo adalowa mzovala zake. M'malo moipukuta, idakutidwa ndi chidutswa. A McGuindos sanathe kuzichotsa, choncho anali kuvalabe kuti azigwira ntchito. Sipanatenge nthawi McGuinty adazindikira kuti malaya okhala ndi mphirawo anali ataphimbidwa ndi zomwe zimawoneka ngati zomatira zopanda madzi, mawonekedwe oyipa koma osadukiza. Anangotseka chovala chonsecho ndi mphira, ndipo zotsatira zake zinali chovala chosagwetsa mvula. Ndi suti yatsopano, McGuinty sanadandaulenso za mvula. Zachilendozi zidafalikira posachedwa, ndipo anzawo ku fakitaleyo adatsata kutsogolera kwa McGuinty ndikupanga ma raincoats opanda madzi. Pambuyo pake, kutchuka kwakukula kwa tepi raincoat kunakopa chidwi cha a Parks, a metallurgists achingerezi, omwe adaphunziranso mtundu wa zovala. Mapaki adapeza kuti zovala zopangidwa ndi mphira, ngakhale zinali zopanda malire, zinali zolimba komanso zophulika, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zizikhala zokopa komanso zosasangalatsa kuvala. Parks adaganiza zopanga bwino pa kavalidwe. Mpaka mu 1884 pomwe Parks adapanga ndi kugwiritsa ntchito njira yaukadaulo yogwiritsa ntchito mpweya wa disulfide ngati zosungunulira, kutha mphira, ndikupanga zotetezera madzi. Pofuna kuti ntchitoyi isandulike mwachangu, mapaki adagulitsa patent kwa munthu wotchedwa Charles. Ma raincoats adayamba kupangidwa mochuluka, ndipo kampani ya Charles Raincoat posakhalitsa idatchuka padziko lonse lapansi. Makina a windows, monga aliyense amatchulira raincoat yake, sanaiwale, komabe. Kuyambira pamenepo, dzina loti "raincoat" linayamba kudziwika m'Chingelezi kuti "Mackintosh." Atalowa m'zaka za zana la makumi awiri, mawonekedwe apulasitiki ndi nsalu zosiyanasiyana zopanda madzi zidapangitsa kalembedwe ndi utoto wa malaya amvula kukhala olemera komanso olemera. Pambuyo pa ma 1960, ma raincoats opangidwa kuchokera ku mapepala apulasitiki kapena malaya amvula adayamba kutchuka


Post nthawi: Oct-29-2020